一、前言

上一篇《Spring Boot 入门之 Web 篇(二)》介绍了 Spring Boot 的 Web 开发相关的内容,项目的开发离不开数据,因此本篇开始介绍持久层相关的知识。

二、整合 JdbcTemplate

2.1 添加依赖

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<!-- jdbc -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
</dependency>

<!-- mysql 驱动包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>

2.2 配置数据库连接

在 application.properties 中添加:

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spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/springboot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=tiger

其中,可以不指定 driver-class-name,因为 spring boot 会自动识别 url。

2.3 测试

2.3.1 建表

在 MySQL 中创建名为 springboot 的数据库,在该库中创建 user 表:

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CREATE TABLE `user` (
`id` INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`username` VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
`password` VARCHAR(64) NOT NULL,
`birthday` DATE NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
)
COLLATE='utf8_general_ci'
ENGINE=InnoDB
AUTO_INCREMENT=3
;

2.3.2 建实体类

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public class User implements Serializable{

private static final long serialVersionUID = -6249397911566315813L;

private Integer id;

private String username;

private String password;

private Date birthday;

}

setter 和 getter 方法此处省略。

2.3.3 dao 接口

接口和实现类如下:

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public interface UserDao {

public int insert(User user);

public int deleteById(Integer id);

public int update(User user);

public User getById(Integer id);
}

@Repository
public class UserDaoImpl implements UserDao {

@Autowired
private JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

@Override
public int insert(User user) {
String sql = "insert into user(id,username,password,birthday) values(?,?,?,?)";
return this.jdbcTemplate.update(
sql,
user.getId(),
user.getUsername(),
user.getPassword(),
user.getBirthday()
);
}

@Override
public int deleteById(Integer id) {
String sql = "delete from user where id = ?";
return this.jdbcTemplate.update(sql,id);
}

@Override
public int update(User user) {
String sql = "update user set password = ? where id = ?";
return this.jdbcTemplate.update(
sql,
user.getPassword(),
user.getId()
);
}

@Override
public User getById(Integer id) {
String sql = "select * from user where id = ?";
return this.jdbcTemplate.queryForObject(sql, new RowMapper<User>() {

@Override
public User mapRow(ResultSet rs, int rowNum) throws SQLException {
User user = new User();
user.setId(rs.getInt("id"));
user.setUsername(rs.getString("username"));
user.setPassword(rs.getString("password"));
user.setBirthday(rs.getDate("birthday"));
return user;
}

},id);
}

}

2.3.4 测试类:

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@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class UserDaoTest {

@Autowired
private UserDao userDao;


@Test
public void testInsert() {
User user = new User();
user.setId(1);
user.setUsername("张三");
user.setPassword("zhangsan");
user.setBirthday(new Date());

int result = this.userDao.insert(user);
System.out.println(result);
}

@Test
public void testGetById() {
User user = this.userDao.getById(1);
System.out.println(user.getUsername());
}

@Test
public void testUpdate() {
User user = new User();
user.setId(1);
user.setPassword("zhangsan123");
this.userDao.update(user);
}

@Test
public void testDeleteById() {
int result = this.userDao.deleteById(1);
System.out.println(result);
}
}

测试结果省略...

如需打印日志,在日志配置文件中添加如下配置

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<logger name="org.springframework.jdbc.core.JdbcTemplate" level="debug"/>

三、整合 Spring-data-jpa

3.1 添加依赖

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<!-- jdbc -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
</dependency>

<!-- springboot,jpa 整合包-->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
</dependency>

<!-- mysql 驱动包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>

3.2 配置数据库连接

在 application.properties 中添加:

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# 数据库连接配置
spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/springboot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=tiger

# JPA 配置
spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto=update
spring.jpa.show-sql=true

3.3 编码

3.3.1 建表

在 MySQL 中创建名为 springboot 的数据库,在该库中创建 role 表:

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CREATE TABLE `role` (
`id` INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`name` VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
`descr` VARCHAR(100) NULL DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
)
COLLATE='utf8_general_ci'
ENGINE=InnoDB
;

注意,主键 ID 为 AUTO_INCREMENT 自增。

3.3.2 建实体类

添加相应的注解

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@Entity
public class Role implements Serializable{

private static final long serialVersionUID = 3926276668667517847L;

@Id
@GeneratedValue
private Integer id;

@Column
private String name;

@Column
private String descr;
}

setter 和 getter 方法此处省略。

3.3.3 Repository 接口

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public interface RoleRepository extends JpaRepository<Role, Integer>{

}

3.3.4 测试类

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@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class RoleRepositoryTest {

@Autowired
private RoleRepository roleRepository;

@Test
public void testInsert() {
Role role = new Role();
role.setName("管理员");
role.setDescr("测试");
Role result = this.roleRepository.save(role);
System.out.println(result);
}

@Test
public void testFindOne() {
Role role = this.roleRepository.findOne(1);
System.out.println(role);
}

@Test
public void testUpdate() {
Role role = new Role();
role.setId(1);
role.setName("管理员");
role.setDescr("控制权限");
Role result = this.roleRepository.save(role);
System.out.println(result);
}

@Test
public void testDelete() {
this.roleRepository.delete(1);
}
}

测试结果省略...

四、整合 Mybatis

整合 MyBatis 有两种方式:

  1. 使用 mybatis 官方提供的 Spring Boot 整合包实现。

  2. 使用 mybatis-spring 整合的方式,也就是传统的方式(推荐,此方式容易控制 MyBatis 的配置)。

4.1 配置依赖

方式一:使用官方整合包

1)添加依赖:

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<!-- springboot,mybatis 整合包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
<version>1.3.0</version>
</dependency>

<!-- mysql 驱动包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>

2)配置数据库连接:

在 application.properties 中添加:

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# 数据源配置
spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/springboot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=tiger

# mybatis 配置
mybatis.config-location=classpath:mybatis/mybatis-config.xml
mybatis.mapper-locations=classpath:mybatis/mapper/*.xml

方式二:原始 Jar 包 + 手动编程

1)添加依赖:

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<!-- jdbc -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
</dependency>

<!-- mybatis -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.mybatis</groupId>
<artifactId>mybatis</artifactId>
<version>3.4.4</version>
</dependency>

<!-- spring,mybatis整合包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.mybatis</groupId>
<artifactId>mybatis-spring</artifactId>
<version>1.3.1</version>
</dependency>

<!-- mysql 驱动包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>

2)配置数据库连接:

在 application.properties 中添加:

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# 数据源配置
spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/springboot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=tiger

3)创建配置类:

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@Configuration
public class MyBatisConfiguration {

@Bean
@ConditionalOnMissingBean // 当容器里没有指定的 Bean 的情况下创建该对象
public SqlSessionFactoryBean sqlSessionFactory(DataSource dataSource) {
SqlSessionFactoryBean sqlSessionFactoryBean = new SqlSessionFactoryBean();
// 设置数据源
sqlSessionFactoryBean.setDataSource(dataSource);

// 设置mybatis的主配置文件
sqlSessionFactoryBean.setConfigLocation(new ClassPathResource("mybatis/mybatis-config.xml"));

// 设置mapper映射文件
PathMatchingResourcePatternResolver resolver = new PathMatchingResourcePatternResolver();
Resource[] mapperXml;
try {
mapperXml = resolver.getResources("classpath:mybatis/mapper/*.xml");
sqlSessionFactoryBean.setMapperLocations(mapperXml);
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}

// 设置别名包
sqlSessionFactoryBean.setTypeAliasesPackage("com.light.springboot.domain");

return sqlSessionFactoryBean;
}

@Bean
@ConditionalOnBean(SqlSessionFactoryBean.class) // 当 SqlSessionFactoryBean 实例存在时创建对象
public MapperScannerConfigurer mapperScannerConfigurer() {
MapperScannerConfigurer mapperScannerConfigurer = new MapperScannerConfigurer();
mapperScannerConfigurer.setBasePackage("com.light.springboot.mapper");
return mapperScannerConfigurer;
}
}

以上便是两种方式的配置的不同之处,不同之处就在于如何配置 mybatis 配置文件和 mapper 映射文件的路径。

在 src/main/resources 下创建 mybatis 文件夹,并在 mybatis 文件夹中创建 "mybatis-config.xml" 配置文件,内容如下:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE configuration
PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Config 3.0//EN"
"http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-config.dtd">
<configuration>
<settings>
<!-- 获取数据库自增主键值 -->
<setting name="useGeneratedKeys" value="true"/>
<!-- 使用列别名替换列名,默认为 true -->
<setting name="useColumnLabel" value="true"/>
<!-- 开启驼峰命名转换:Table(create_time) => Entity(createTime) -->
<setting name="mapUnderscoreToCamelCase" value="true"/>
</settings>
</configuration>

mybatis 文件夹下再创建一个 "mapper" 文件夹,里边存放 Mpper 接口对应的 mapper 映射文件。

4.2 测试

4.2.1 建表

在 MySQL 中创建名为 springboot 的数据库,在该库中创建 role 表:

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CREATE TABLE `department` (
`id` INT(11) NOT NULL,
`name` VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
`descr` VARCHAR(50) NULL DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
)
ENGINE=InnoDB
;

4.2.2 实体类

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public class Department implements Serializable{

private static final long serialVersionUID = 6067283535977178571L;

private Integer id;

private String name;

private String descr;
}

setet 和 getter 方法省略。

4.2.3 Mapper 接口

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@Mapper
public interface DepartmentMapper {

public void insert(Department department);

public Department getById(Integer id);

public void update(Department department);

public void deleteById(Integer id);
}

补充:Mapper 接口需要添加 @Mapper 注解,如果不想使用该注解,可以在启动类上使用 @MapperScan 配置 Mapper 接口路径

mybatis/mapper/departmentMapper.xml :

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE mapper PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Mapper 3.0//EN"
"http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-mapper.dtd">
<mapper namespace="com.light.springboot.dao.DepartmentMapper">

<insert id="insert" parameterType="com.light.springboot.domain.Department">
insert into department(id,name,descr) values(#{id},#{name},#{descr})
</insert>

<select id="getById" parameterType="java.lang.Integer" resultType="com.light.springboot.domain.Department">
select id,name,descr from department where id = #{id}
</select>

<update id="update" parameterType="com.light.springboot.domain.Department">
update department set descr = #{descr} where id = #{id}
</update>

<delete id="deleteById" parameterType="java.lang.Integer">
delete from department where id = #{id}
</delete>
</mapper>

4.2.4 测试类

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@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class DepartmentTest {

@Autowired
private DepartmentMapper departmentMapper;

@Test
public void testInsert() {
Department department = new Department();
department.setId(1);
department.setName("研发部");
department.setDescr("开发产品");
this.departmentMapper.insert(department);
}

@Test
public void testGetById() {
Department department = this.departmentMapper.getById(1);
System.out.println(department);
}

@Test
public void testUpdate() {
Department department = new Department();
department.setId(1);
department.setDescr("开发高级产品");
this.departmentMapper.update(department);
}

@Test
public void testDeleteById() {
this.departmentMapper.deleteById(1);
}
}

测试结果省略...

五、配置 Druid 数据源

同样地,有两种方式配置:

1)Spring boot,Druid 整合包

2)原始 jar 包 + 手动编程

5.1 Spring boot,Druid 整合包方式

5.1.1 添加依赖

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<!-- springboot,druid 整合包 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
<artifactId>druid-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
<version>1.1.8</version>
</dependency>

5.1.2 添加配置

在 application.properties 中添加:

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spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/springboot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=tiger

# 修改数据源
spring.datasource.type=com.alibaba.druid.pool.DruidDataSource
spring.datasource.druid.initial-size=5
spring.datasource.druid.min-idle=5
spring.datasource.druid.max-active=20
spring.datasource.druid.max-wait=60000
spring.datasource.druid.time-between-eviction-runs-millis=60000
spring.datasource.druid.min-evictable-idle-time-millis=300000
spring.datasource.druid.validation-query=SELECT 1 FROM DUAL
spring.datasource.druid.test-while-idle=true
spring.datasource.druid.test-on-borrow=false
spring.datasource.druid.test-on-return=false
spring.datasource.druid.pool-prepared-statements=true
spring.datasource.druid.max-pool-prepared-statement-per-connection-size=20
spring.datasource.druid.filters=stat,wall,log4j

5.2 原始 jar 包 + 手动编程方式

5.2.1 添加依赖

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<dependency>
<groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
<artifactId>druid</artifactId>
<version>1.1.8</version>
</dependency>

5.2.2 添加配置

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spring.datasource.druid.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.druid.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/springboot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.druid.username=root
spring.datasource.druid.password=tiger

spring.datasource.druid.initialSize=5
spring.datasource.druid.minIdle=5
spring.datasource.druid.maxActive=20
spring.datasource.druid.maxWait=60000
spring.datasource.druid.timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis=60000
spring.datasource.druid.min-evictableIdleTimeMillis=300000
spring.datasource.druid.validationQuery=SELECT 1 FROM DUAL
spring.datasource.druid.testWhileIdle=true
spring.datasource.druid.testOnBorrow=false
spring.datasource.druid.testOnReturn=false
spring.datasource.druid.poolPreparedStatements=true
spring.datasource.druid.maxPoolPreparedStatementPerConnectionSize=20
spring.datasource.druid.filters=stat,wall

注意:配置中都是以 spring.datasource.druid 开头,使用驼峰命名

5.2.3 手动编程

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@Configuration
public class DruidConfiguration {

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.datasource.druid")
@Bean(initMethod = "init",destroyMethod = "close")
public DruidDataSource dataSource() {
DruidDataSource ds = new DruidDataSource();
ds.setProxyFilters(Arrays.asList(statFilter()));
return ds;
}

@Bean
public Filter statFilter() {
StatFilter filter = new StatFilter();
filter.setSlowSqlMillis(5000);
filter.setLogSlowSql(true);
filter.setMergeSql(true);
return filter;
}
}

通过上文 MyBatis 的测试代码,运行结果如下:

项目已经使用了 Druid 数据源了。

六、配置 Druid 监控

默认情况下,Druid 的监控统计功能和页面是开启的。

我们启动项目,访问 http://localhost:8080/druid/index.html,如下图:

为了保证访问的安全性,我们可以如下配置:

在 application.properties 中添加(方式一):

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## druid 监控
spring.datasource.druid.web-stat-filter.enabled=true
spring.datasource.druid.web-stat-filter.url-pattern=/*
spring.datasource.druid.web-stat-filter.exclusions=*.js,*.gif,*.jpg,*.png,*.css,*.ico,/druid/*

## druid 监控页面
spring.datasource.druid.stat-view-servlet.enabled=true
spring.datasource.druid.stat-view-servlet.url-pattern=/druid/*
spring.datasource.druid.stat-view-servlet.login-username=druid
spring.datasource.druid.stat-view-servlet.login-password=druid123

重启项目,再次访问 http://localhost:8080/druid/index.html 地址时需要身份验证:

七、源码下载

八、参考资料