Spring Boot 入门之消息中间件篇(五)

一、前言

在消息中间件中有 2 个重要的概念:消息代理和目的地。当消息发送者发送消息后,消息就被消息代理接管,消息代理保证消息传递到指定目的地。

我们常用的消息代理有 JMS 和 AMQP 规范。对应地,它们常见的实现分别是 ActiveMQ 和 RabbitMQ。

上篇文章《Spring Boot 入门之缓存和 NoSQL 篇(四)》

二、整合 ActiveMQ

2.1 添加依赖

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-activemq</artifactId>
</dependency>
<!-- 如果需要配置连接池,添加如下依赖 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.apache.activemq</groupId>
<artifactId>activemq-pool</artifactId>
</dependency>

2.2 添加配置

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# activemq 配置
spring.activemq.broker-url=tcp://192.168.2.61:61616
spring.activemq.user=admin
spring.activemq.password=admin
spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false
spring.activemq.pool.max-connections=50
# 使用发布/订阅模式时,下边配置需要设置成 true
spring.jms.pub-sub-domain=false

此处 spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false,表示关闭连接池。

2.3 编码

配置类:

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@Configuration
public class JmsConfirguration {
public static final String QUEUE_NAME = "activemq_queue";
public static final String TOPIC_NAME = "activemq_topic";
@Bean
public Queue queue() {
return new ActiveMQQueue(QUEUE_NAME);
}
@Bean
public Topic topic() {
return new ActiveMQTopic(TOPIC_NAME);
}
}

负责创建队列和主题。

消息生产者:

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@Component
public class JmsSender {
@Autowired
private Queue queue;
@Autowired
private Topic topic;
@Autowired
private JmsMessagingTemplate jmsTemplate;
public void sendByQueue(String message) {
this.jmsTemplate.convertAndSend(queue, message);
}
public void sendByTopic(String message) {
this.jmsTemplate.convertAndSend(topic, message);
}
}

消息消费者:

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@Component
public class JmsReceiver {
@JmsListener(destination = JmsConfirguration.QUEUE_NAME)
public void receiveByQueue(String message) {
System.out.println("接收队列消息:" + message);
}
@JmsListener(destination = JmsConfirguration.TOPIC_NAME)
public void receiveByTopic(String message) {
System.out.println("接收主题消息:" + message);
}
}

消息消费者使用 @JmsListener 注解监听消息。

2.4 测试

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@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class JmsTest {
@Autowired
private JmsSender sender;
@Test
public void testSendByQueue() {
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
this.sender.sendByQueue("hello activemq queue " + i);
}
}
@Test
public void testSendByTopic() {
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
this.sender.sendByTopic("hello activemq topic " + i);
}
}
}

打印结果:

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接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 1
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 2
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 3
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 4
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 5

测试发布/订阅模式时,设置 spring.jms.pub-sub-domain=true

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接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 1
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 2
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 3
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 4
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 5

三、整合 RabbitMQ

3.1 添加依赖

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
</dependency>

3.2 添加配置

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spring.rabbitmq.host=192.168.2.71
spring.rabbitmq.port=5672
spring.rabbitmq.username=light
spring.rabbitmq.password=light
spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host=/test

3.3 编码

配置类:

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@Configuration
public class AmqpConfirguration {
//=============简单、工作队列模式===============
public static final String SIMPLE_QUEUE = "simple_queue";
@Bean
public Queue queue() {
return new Queue(SIMPLE_QUEUE, true);
}
//===============发布/订阅模式============
public static final String PS_QUEUE_1 = "ps_queue_1";
public static final String PS_QUEUE_2 = "ps_queue_2";
public static final String FANOUT_EXCHANGE = "fanout_exchange";
@Bean
public Queue psQueue1() {
return new Queue(PS_QUEUE_1, true);
}
@Bean
public Queue psQueue2() {
return new Queue(PS_QUEUE_2, true);
}
@Bean
public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange() {
return new FanoutExchange(FANOUT_EXCHANGE);
}
@Bean
public Binding fanoutBinding1() {
return BindingBuilder.bind(psQueue1()).to(fanoutExchange());
}
@Bean
public Binding fanoutBinding2() {
return BindingBuilder.bind(psQueue2()).to(fanoutExchange());
}
//===============路由模式============
public static final String ROUTING_QUEUE_1 = "routing_queue_1";
public static final String ROUTING_QUEUE_2 = "routing_queue_2";
public static final String DIRECT_EXCHANGE = "direct_exchange";
@Bean
public Queue routingQueue1() {
return new Queue(ROUTING_QUEUE_1, true);
}
@Bean
public Queue routingQueue2() {
return new Queue(ROUTING_QUEUE_2, true);
}
@Bean
public DirectExchange directExchange() {
return new DirectExchange(DIRECT_EXCHANGE);
}
@Bean
public Binding directBinding1() {
return BindingBuilder.bind(routingQueue1()).to(directExchange()).with("user");
}
@Bean
public Binding directBinding2() {
return BindingBuilder.bind(routingQueue2()).to(directExchange()).with("order");
}
//===============主题模式============
public static final String TOPIC_QUEUE_1 = "topic_queue_1";
public static final String TOPIC_QUEUE_2 = "topic_queue_2";
public static final String TOPIC_EXCHANGE = "topic_exchange";
@Bean
public Queue topicQueue1() {
return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_1, true);
}
@Bean
public Queue topicQueue2() {
return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_2, true);
}
@Bean
public TopicExchange topicExchange() {
return new TopicExchange(TOPIC_EXCHANGE);
}
@Bean
public Binding topicBinding1() {
return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueue1()).to(topicExchange()).with("user.add");
}
@Bean
public Binding topicBinding2() {
return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueue2()).to(topicExchange()).with("user.#");
}
}

RabbitMQ 有多种工作模式,因此配置比较多。想了解相关内容的读者可以查看本站的《RabbitMQ 工作模式介绍》或者自行百度相关资料。

消息生产者:

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@Component
public class AmqpSender {
@Autowired
private AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate;
/**
* 简单模式发送
*
* @param message
*/
public void simpleSend(String message) {
this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.SIMPLE_QUEUE, message);
}
/**
* 发布/订阅模式发送
*
* @param message
*/
public void psSend(String message) {
this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", message);
}
/**
* 路由模式发送
*
* @param message
*/
public void routingSend(String routingKey, String message) {
this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.DIRECT_EXCHANGE, routingKey, message);
}
/**
* 主题模式发送
*
* @param routingKey
* @param message
*/
public void topicSend(String routingKey, String message) {
this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_EXCHANGE, routingKey, message);
}
}

消息消费者:

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@Component
public class AmqpReceiver {
/**
* 简单模式接收
*
* @param message
*/
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.SIMPLE_QUEUE)
public void simpleReceive(String message) {
System.out.println("接收消息:" + message);
}
/**
* 发布/订阅模式接收
*
* @param message
*/
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_1)
public void psReceive1(String message) {
System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
}
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_2)
public void psReceive2(String message) {
System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
}
/**
* 路由模式接收
*
* @param message
*/
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_1)
public void routingReceive1(String message) {
System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
}
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_2)
public void routingReceive2(String message) {
System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
}
/**
* 主题模式接收
*
* @param message
*/
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_1)
public void topicReceive1(String message) {
System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
}
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_2)
public void topicReceive2(String message) {
System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
}
}

消息消费者使用 @RabbitListener 注解监听消息。

3.4 测试

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@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class AmqpTest {
@Autowired
private AmqpSender sender;
@Test
public void testSimpleSend() {
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
this.sender.simpleSend("test simpleSend " + i);
}
}
@Test
public void testPsSend() {
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
this.sender.psSend("test psSend " + i);
}
}
@Test
public void testRoutingSend() {
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
this.sender.routingSend("order", "test routingSend " + i);
}
}
@Test
public void testTopicSend() {
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
this.sender.topicSend("user.add", "test topicSend " + i);
}
}
}

测试结果略过。。。

踩坑提醒1:ACCESS_REFUSED - Login was refused using authentication mechanism PLAIN

解决方案:

1) 请确保用户名和密码是否正确,需要注意的时用户名和密码的值是否包含空格或制表符。

2) 如果测试账户使用的是 guest,需要修改 rabbitmq.conf 文件。在该文件中添加 “loopback_users = none” 配置。

踩坑提醒2:Cannot prepare queue for listener. Either the queue doesn’t exist or the broker will not allow us to use it

解决方案:

我们可以登陆 RabbitMQ 的管理界面,在 Queue 选项中手动添加对应的队列。

四、源码下载

五、参考资料

------本文结束 感谢阅读------
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